The goal of this presentation is to provide an overview of the relevance of artificial intelligence (AI) as it applies to data, including health data, as well as to discuss certain ethical challenges posed by AI. The presentation will begin with a quick overview of what are AI and the science of data. We will explore the potential benefits that can stem from AI for the health system, as well as new challenges that it creates. Notable among these is the potential re-identification of individuals from anonymized data. We will then discuss the challenges of ethics review of health data: are the mechanisms that are traditionally used to ensure the protection and the promotion of research participants effective when dealing with health data? We will question the effectiveness of individual consent as a means to protect privacy in the context of mass data and will examine the adequacy of traditional analysis criteria for the ethical evaluation of research projects when using AI in a health environment.